Saving life
and property
Practical advice and formal regulations
regarding Exit Devices for escape routes

»»Ò³
The ASSA ABLOY Group is the world’s leading
manufacturer and supplier of locks and associated
products. All designed to meet end-user’s needs
for security, safety and convenience.
The Group is active in the development, the
production and the marketing of mechanical
locks, industrial locks, electromechanical and
electronic locks as well as hotel locks, fittings
and other accessories. Exit devices form an
important element in this broad product mix.
European edition
The contents of this booklet relate to the new
European regulations, but can be used elsewhere
providing it is borne in mind that all references are
European and that local regulations must be taken
into consideration. Not to be used in the US.
© ASSA ABLOY AB 2000

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1
Contents
Part 1: Practical guidance
Fire, smoke and panic
2
How to use this handbook
4
The basic consideration: Safety vs. Security
8
Panic or Emergency?
10
The role of Exit Hardware
12
What type of premises?
14
Important considerations
18
Different types of Exit Hardware
20
Mechanically operated Panic Exit Devices
22
Electrically controlled Panic Exit Systems
24
Mechanically operated Emergency Exit Devices
26
Electrically controlled Emergency Exit Systems
28
A summary
31
Installation and maintance
32
How to find a good solution
35
A checklist
36
Terminology and definitions
38
Frequently asked questions
42
Where to find what in this document
44
Part 2: Formal regulations
New and important information
48
European Construction Product Directive
50
National Building Regulations
52
Fire and Life safety
52
Where to find what
53
Extracts from EN standards
54
Product standards/CEN
57
Main testing requirements
58
ASSA ABLOY in brief
60
About this document
61

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2
Assess the problem.
Security and safety are among Man’s main concerns
in life.
Security was probably the earlier consideration
for humanity. Ancient cave dwellers used heavy
stones to protect their homes from intruders or wild
animals. That may have worked well from a security
point of view. But in case of fire, it was very far from
being safe. Escaping from a life-threatening situation
is not easy with a heavy stone to shift!
Unfortunately, many people still have to learn
that lesson today.
Statistics.
In fires in buildings, it is often not the fire itself that
causes casualties, but rather the smoke and panic
that result from the fire. Smoke control is important,
but it is even more important to have an adequate
number of exit doors that swing outwards and that
can be easily operated without prior knowledge of
how they work.
Recent European disasters.
Despite the fact that technology is continually
advancing, fire disasters with fatal outcome still hap-
pen. Even during the last decade, fires have caused
thousands of deaths and many more severe injuries
in Europe alone. With appropriate exit devices, some
of these lives could have been saved.
Fire, smoke and panic
80,000
It has been estimated that each year in the European Union, 80,000
people will be injured in fires and of these, 4,000 will die.

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3
In pursuit of the optimal solution.
Security and safety need not be mutually exclusive.
You do not have to sacrifice security (resistance to
forced entry) to achieve safety for people who need
to escape from an emergency or life-threatening situ-
ation. New solutions using mechanical or electro-
mechanical exit systems can provide ease of escape
from a secure building.
Conclusions.
A building lost by fire can always be replaced.
Human life lost by fires cannot. But you can help
make a difference by the systems you choose.

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4
New Standards create higher demands.
New European Standards for building hardware
have been published recently. Others are still in
preparation by the CEN committees. Some of them,
so-called Harmonised Standards, have been mandat-
ed by the European Commission to meet the essen-
tial requirements of the new Construction Product
Directive. Accordingly, products complying with
these Standards will be entitled to carry the CE
marking.
These new regulations are new to most of us and
may seem difficult to understand. Demands for
information and clarification are growing.
European and national Standards
These European Standards are or will be implemented
in all member countries of the European Union. This
means they will be published as national Standards.
All existing national Standards that conflict with
them will have to be withdrawn or amended.
Guidance, not a rulebook.
This handbook gives guidance. Within the
ASSA ABLOY Group we have a vast amount of
expertise in the area of panic and emergency exit
hardware and its application in many countries
throughout the world. With this document, our
aim is to share this expertise with you to help you
to find a path through the complex rules and regula-
tions surrounding this critically important subject.
This handbook is not intended as a rulebook,
rather as a practical help in finding a good solution.
The final choice remains the responsibility of the
decision-maker.
How to use this handbook

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5
A tool for better Design Specification.
This handbook is intended to be used when writing
design specifications. It will give some practical guid-
ance as well as information regarding formal regula-
tions.
If you have any of the following roles, this docu-
ment has been prepared especially with you in mind:
• Architect and specifier
• Security manager
• Fire officer
• Safety officer
• Government official
• Insurance assessor
• Police officer
• Security consultant
However, our expectation and hope is that anyone
with an influence on the selection of hardware for
escape routes will find this document an invaluable
source of information.

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»»Ò³
Part 1:
Practical guidance

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8
Life before property.
When designing a new building, both ease of escape
and resistance to unauthorised use of doors, i.e. safe-
ty and security, are normally considered:
However, the new European regulations only
stipulate Standards for safety. These requirements are
mandatory and must be followed.
In this document, we focus on the issue of safety,
but take security into consideration too.
Safety.
Ability to provide for escape from
a dangerous or life-threatening
situation, i.e. saving human lives.
•Ease of escape
The basic consideration

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9
Security.
Ability to resist unauthorised entry
(access) and exit (egress),
i.e. protecting people and property.
•Resistance to unauthorised use
of door

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10
Panic or Emergency?
When designing equipment for exit doors on escape
routes, you should always ask the question: is there
any chance that a panic situation may arise?
Often, of course, building regulations, fire safety
requirements, etc. will give you formal guidance or
will even require the use of special hardware.
However, the designer should take all possible mea-
sures to reduce the consequences of potential risks
that may occur in the lifespan of a building. Technical
solutions to deal with panic situations and with ‘ordi-
nary’ emergencies are different. It is therefore impor-
tant to define what type of situation is likely to arise.
Panic situations.
The reactions of a large number of people are always
difficult to predict, especially in the event of
a fire in a cinema, a restaurant etc.
The chances are that many of them will behave
irrationally. The individuals exposed to such a panic

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11
situation must be able easily to find the hardware
located on the exit door and how to operate it, and
must not need any special tool or key, which may
not be available.
The exit hardware must be designed to perform
correctly in even the most extreme situations, in
order to allow panicking people to exit.
Emergency situations.
Typically, panic will not arise in hazardous situations
involving a smaller number of people. Especially not
if these people are familiar with the premises and
with the emergency exits and their hardware. This
could be the case in offices or other working envi-
ronments.
Information, training, etc. will allow people to
act rationally and to overcome their fears when
exposed to a threatening situation. A clear under-
standing of the means of escape will allow positive

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12
and reasonable reactions, thus making a clear choice
possible: where to go, what door to use, how to
operate the door, etc.
Of course, it is necessary here too that the door
will operate without using any special tool or key,
since this may not be available immediately.
The role of Exit Hardware
In a building, escape routes are designed to be used
in both emergency and panic situations. Escape
routes include corridors, staircases and all other
routes leading to a safe area outside the building.

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13
The
exit doors
located on escape routes and at
the final exits from a building should normally
always open in the direction of escape. There may be
exceptions, due to the likelihood of special weather
conditions (heaps of snow outside, for example) or
because of the use of the building (e.g. hospital or
hotel rooms).
Exit hardware
is the name given to any equip-
ment in a building which is intended to open the exit
doors located on escape routes.
Ease of escape (safety) is always the first priority, but
resistance to unauthorised entry (security) should not
be compromised, partly because it could have a neg-
ative effect on safety
Protecting lives with Exit Hardware.
History shows that, after every disaster, the public
authorities respond with new legislation and regula-
tions.
In most countries where major disasters have
occurred, better solutions are now enforced. Why
should we wait for the next disaster before we act?
Traditional thinking often fails to recommend the
most suitable solutions for a panic situation. New
solutions that take account of recent technical devel-
opments and experience drawn from real disasters
around the world are now readily available.

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14
As a specifier or decision maker, you should always
consider the most suitable and effective solutions
that modern exit hardware can offer in the interests
of saving lives.
What happens when a fire starts?
The usual sequence of events during a fire is:
•Fire and smoke detection
•Fire alarm sounded
•Extraction of smoke
•Evacuation of people from the building
•Compartmentalization of the building through
fire-resisting doors etc that close automatically
•Fire fighting from inside (sprinklers, fire extin-
guishers, water walls, etc.) and from outside
(firemen).
When designing a building, it is necessary to specify
locations for the escape doors on the escape routes.
Also, to identify other requirements such as fire
detection, alarms, evacuation, fire resistance (com-
partmentalization), etc.
What type of premises?

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15
The first questions to answer are:
• Type and use of building?
• Type and use of each room?
• Size of each room?
• Number of people allowed in the room?
• Escape routes?
• People’s likely knowledge of environment?
• Need for control of exit or entry?
• Fire resisting door or not?
Consider the regulations.
After answering these questions, always consider the
regulations. Reference should always be made to
building codes and regulations from national and
fire authorities regarding exit hardware where such
codes exist. However the new European Standards
for panic and emergency exit hardware should
always be given priority.
Further advice.
On the following pages you will find a schematic
presentation of how escape routes and escape doors
may interact in premises with different functionali-
ties. There is also a list ranking the risk of panic in
different types of building. Please note that these
presentations are examples only, and far from
exhaustive.

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16
Escape routes and escape doors
Panic.
Seen from a safety perspective, all doors along
escape routes should be viewed as escape doors.
Accordingly, they need to be identified as such and
properly equipped with exit hardware in accordance
with the new European Standards.

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17
Emergency.

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18
Important considerations
Doors.
The number of exit doors and the location and
width of each door are all important considerations.
The choice depends on the size of the area in which
people will gather and the maximum number of
people that might gather in that area at one time.
Exit hardware.
Where large numbers of people will occupy a room,
panic exit devices must be provided. Where small
numbers of people are gathered, emergency exit
devices may be used (see definitions on p 38).
However, where human life is involved, the price of
the locking device should not be the only factor to
be considered.

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19
Public areas.
The safeguarding of human life is a responsibility
shared by architects, public officials and others in
deciding on the equipment for a building. In schools,
theatres, and other public areas it is necessary to
make provisions for PANIC arising in case of fire or
other emergencies.
Among other things, this demands that all exit
doors must not only be made to swing outwards
from the building (with limited exceptions, see p 13),
but must also be equipped with exit devices that
enable the
doors to be opened AT ALL TIMES from
the INSIDE by ANYBODY.
Some local regulations permit exceptions when
buildings are known to be unoccupied. For security
purposes, exit doors may be locked against exit at
such time,
providing
they are unlocked during hours
of occupancy. A sign over the door might state “This
door must be unlocked during hours of occupancy”.
Fire-resisting doors.
A fire-resistant door that is designed to contain a fire
must use a locking device designed to keep the door
closed during the fire. The latch bolt must be engaged
and close but not lock the door each time it is used.

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20
Exit Hardware
is the term for the different types of
hardware intended for use on exit doors located on
escape routes.
Panic Exit Hardware
or
Emergency Exit Hardware
should be selected in accordance to the level of risk
of panic.
An
Exit Device
is the common term for a mechani-
cally operated device intended for panic exit func-
tion or emergency exit function: a
Panic Exit Device
or an
Emergency Exit Device
.
An
Exit System
is the common term for an electri-
cally controlled system intended for panic exit func-
tion or emergency exit function: a
Panic Exit System
or an
Emergency Exit System
.
Different types of Exit Hardware

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21
Sistemas de
salide/escape
Herraje/dispositivo
de emergencia
Herraje/dispositivo
antiaanico
Dispositivos
antipanico
que opera
mecanicamente
Dispositivos
de emergencia
que opera
mecanicamente
Dispositivos
antipanico
que opera
electricamente
Dispositivos
de emergencia
que se opera
electricamente
Dispositivos
antipanico
segun la pr
EN 13633
No acorde
con la
normativa EN
Dispositivos
de emergencia
segun la
EN 179
Dispositivos
de emergencia
segun la pr
EN 13637
Dispositivos
antipanico
segun la
EN 1125
Otros
sistermas
de salida

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22
Mechanically operated
Panic Exit Devices
”A panic exit device to EN 1125 is intended for use
where panic situations may arise, to give safe and
effective escape through a doorway with minimum
effort and without prior knowledge of the panic exit
device. It therefore allows escape even in the event
of a door under pressure.*
It contains bolt head(s) which engage(s) with a
keeper(s) in the surrounding door frame or floor for
securing a door when closed. The bolt head(s) can
be released by the bar positioned horizontally across
the inside face of the door when it is moved any-
where along its effective length in the direction of
travel and/or in an arc downwards.
NOTE : panic exit devices are suitable also for
emergency exits.”**
* by being pushed, thus creating pressure on the bolt-heads in the keepers
** EN 1125
There are basically two different categories of opera-
tion identified in the Standard:
-type A: panic exit device with ‘push-bar’ operation
(see illustration)
-type B: panic exit device with ‘touch-bar’
operation (see illustration)
The push-bar (or ‘cross-bar’) is the activating hori-
zontal bar of a panic device (type A). It is designed
to be fixed between pivoted support brackets and
operates in the direction of exit and/or in an arc
downwards.

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23
The touch-bar (or ‘integrated bar’) is the activating
horizontal bar of a panic device (type B). It is
designed to be part of a chassis or other mounting
assembly that operates in the direction of exit.
A
B

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New solutions meeting additional needs have been
developed to incorporate additional features.
An electrically controlled panic exit system to
prEN 13633, intended for use where panic situations
are foreseen, enables the electrical control of emer-
gency exit doors by means of an electrical locking
element, an initiating element and electrical control-
ling elements. These separate elements may be inter-
connected or may be combined in various assemblies
to provide the required system functions.
Why use electrically controlled panic exit systems?
To add more intelligence to the exit solutions, there-
by achieving other optional functions:
• Signalling (open, closed, locked)
• Video monitoring
24
Electrically controlled
Panic Exit Systems

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25
Puerta Asegurada (salida denegada)
Puerta liberada para apertura. (fallo del sistema de seguridad)
mecanismo
antipanico
Corte de
energia
electrica
Fallo del
sisterna
antipanico
Salida/
entrade
solicitada
Sisterna
de control
de accesos
Sisterna de
deteccion
antifuego
• Time operation (locked when building unoccupied)
• Delayed release (controlled / supervised)
• Remote operation (electric locking)
Higher security can also be achieved.
• Higher holding power
• Optional access control link
The safety of the installation can be maintained.
• Can be linked to fire detection and alarm system
• Fail safe operation
• Mechanical exit is always retained! (a requirement
of prEN 13633)
Functionality of electrically controlled Panic Exit Systems.

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26
An emergency exit device to EN 179 is a mechanism
intended for emergency purposes where panic situa-
tions are not likely to arise. It is designed to give
safe and effective escape through a doorway with
one single operation to release the device, although
this may require prior knowledge of its operation.
The device contains one or more bolt heads which
engage with keepers in the surrounding door frame
or floor for securing the door when closed. The bolt
heads can be released by the lever handle or the
push pad positioned on the inside face of the door.
NOTE: emergency exit devices are not suitable for
panic exits.
Mechanically operated
Emergency Exit Devices

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27

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28
Electrically controlled
Emergency Exit Systems
An electrically controlled emergency exit system to
prEN 13637 is a system for use where panic situa-
tions are not foreseen which enables the electrical
control of emergency exit doors by means of electri-
cal locking elements, a requesting element and elec-
trical controlling elements. These separate elements
may be interconnected or may be combined in vari-
ous assemblies to provide the required system func-
tions.
Why use electrically controlled emergency exit systems?
To add more intelligence to the exit solutions, there-
by achieving other optional functions:
• Signalling (open, closed, locked)
• Video monitoring
• Time operation (locked when building unoccupied)
• Delayed release (controlled / supervised)
• Remote operation (electric locking)
Higher security can be achieved.
• Higher holding power
• Optional access control link
• Immediate or optional delayed exit
Still maintaining the safety of the installation.
• Can be linked to fire detection and alarm system
• Fail safe operation
•Mechanical exit is always retained! (a requirement
of prEN 13637)
(But can be delayed by a short, pre-set time period)

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29
Puerta asegurada (salida denegada)
Puerta liberada para apertura (fallo del sistema de seguridad)
Solicitud de salida
de emergencia
Corte de
energia
electrica
Fallo del
sistema de
emergencia
Sistema de
deteccion
antifuego
Salida /
Entrada
solicitada
Sistema de
control se
accesos
Retraso
temporal
Condiciones
optimas para
reprograma ?
Reprogramar
Si
No
Decision del
supervisor
Retraso
extendido
Functionality of electrically controlled emergency
exit systems.

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30
Some other types of exit hardware are used by tradi-
tion in a number of countries. These devices do not
comply with the new European Standards, but may
be accepted as an emergency product in some coun-
tries for a limited time to come. However it is of
great importance to be sure of the acceptance of the
product.
Possible reasons for acceptance can be traditional
use of the product and/or that the escape route and
the escape fittings are well known to the occupants.
However, such products should, wherever possible,
be replaced by products that comply with the latest
Standards.
Other exit hardware

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31
A summary
Equipment
Panic
Emergency Security
Ease of use
(Safety)
Mechanically
operated
Panic
exit devices
Electrically
controlled
Panic
exit systems
Mechanically
operated
Emergency
exit devices
Electrically
controlled
Emergency
exit systems
= high
KEY TO SUITABILITY
= medium
= low
= must not be used
Suitable products for different requirements.

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32
Installation and maintenance
Exit devices and systems are designed and tested on
various applications and doors. Make sure to check
these points:
Door type.
•Single door
•Double door set
•First opening leaf of a double door set
•Second opening leaf of a double door set
Door construction.
•Solid or framed door
•Material
•Thickness
•Weight
Door fixings.
•Rim type (or surface-applied): the device
is fixed to the surface of the door leaf.
•Mortise type (or concealed): the device is
installed inside the door leaf.
Door functionality.
•Standard exit door
•Fire-resisting exit door
•High security door
Accessories.
•Special strikes
•Door coordinator
•Open-back strike
•Removable mullions
•Throw bolts
Each of these must be tested and approved with
the exit device or system to be used. Exit hardware
should always be fitted by a qualified installer.

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33
External functions.
Here are some of the most used options:
•Lever handle or knob only
•Lever handle or knob, locked by a key
•Key operation only
•Electrically controlled outside trim
•No operation outside (exit only)
NOTE: These external functions must not interfere
with the exit device or system and
must allow exit at
all times
from inside. Check that the outside trims
are tested and approved together with the exit
device chosen.
Additional considerations.
•The quality level of the products
•The importance of installation quality
•The products should work for many years (despite
high use, very low use or exposure to harsh
atmosphere)
•The quality of the total solution including comple-
mentary products such as door-closing devices,
hinges, door operators, door coordinators, etc.

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34
The risk of panic.
In general, the risk of panic in different sorts of
premises can be ranked as follows. However always
make a thorough assessment.
NOTE: The information on pages 34-37 are points
you should consider as parts of this assessment.
Airports
Clubs
Cinemas
Department stores
Discotheques
Factories
Homes for the elderly
Hospital rooms
Risk of panic
Hotel (public areas)
Office environment
Power plants
Shopping malls
Student dormitories
Restaurants
Theatres
Installation and fixing, see EN 1125, EN 179, prEN 13633 and
prEN 13637.
Installation on fire-resisting doors, see EN 1125, EN 179,
prEN 13633 and prEN 13637.
Preventive maintenance: note that products should be checked
on a regular basis and more sophisticated products should be
covered by a maintenance contract.
Use with door-closing devices see EN 1154; with door opera-
tors see EN 1155; with door coordinators see EN 1158, etc.
Relevant EN recommendations

»»Ò³
35
How to find a good solution
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Emergency
Exit
Device to
EN 179
Emergency
Exit
System
Panic
Exit
Device to
EN 1125
Panic
Exit
System
Start
Public use?
Escape Route
Risk of Panic?
(see checklist on pages 36 & 37 to define)
Panic Exit Hardware
Emergency Exit Hardware
Connection to Fire Detection System
and/or Control of access?
Exit
hardware
does not
apply

»»Ò³
Estimations
Door
Type of
Type of
Size of
Possible Familiarity
building
room
room
number
with
of people
premises
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Hospital
Exam
20 m2
4
yes
TheatreAuditorium1000 m2
400
no
36
A checklist
Consider the headings below to help you assess the
risk of a panic situation arising. Then complete the
There may also be other considerations, such as higher security or
accessibility by people with impaired mobility. These must not
compromise the primary life-saving features of the exit devices.

»»Ò³
PEH
EEH
PEH
EEH
PEH
EEH
PEH
EEH
PEH
EEH
PEH
EEH
PEH
EEH
PEH
EEH
PEH = Panic Exit Hardware
EEH = Emergency Exit Hardware
= likely
= possible
= none
Familiarity Light
Number Escape
Risk of
Conclusion
with
levels
of escape routes
panic
hardware
doors
yes
good
1
1
no
poor
5
5




37
appropriate box under each heading. This will guide
you to a qualified decision as to whether panic hard-
ware is required.

»»Ò³
38
Note: some of the following definitions are extracts
from the EN 1125, EN 179, prEN 13633 and
prEN 13637 Standards.
Main word
Description
exit hardware
Building hardware intended for use on exit
doors of escape routes.
exit devices
Mechanical exit hardware intended for use in
panic or emergency situation
panic exit device
An exit device to EN 1125 intended for
panic bar;
use where panic situations may arise,
panic lock
to give safe and effective escape through a
doorway with minimum effort and without
prior knowledge of the panic exit device.
It therefore allows escape even in the event
of a door under pressure.
emergency
An exit device to EN 179 intended for
exit device
emergency purposes where panic situations are
exit lock;
not likely to arise, to give safe and effective
emergency lock
escape through a doorway with one single
operation to release the device, although this
may require prior knowledge of its operation.
electrically
Electrically controlled exit hardware
controlled
intended for use in panic or emergency
exit system
situation.
electrically
A system to prEN 13633 for use where panic
controlled
situations are foreseen which enables the
panic exit system
electrical control of emergency exit doors by
means of electrical locking element (EL),
initiating element (IE) and electrical controlling
elements (EC). These separate elements may
be interconnected or may be combined in
various assemblies, to provide the required
system functions.
Technical terminology
and definitions

»»Ò³
39
electrically
A system to prEN 13637 for use where panic
controlled
situations are not foreseen which enables the
emergency
electrical control of emergency exit doors by
exit system
means of electrical locking elements (EL),
requesting element (RE) and electrical controlling
elements (EC). These separate elements may be
interconnected or may be combined in various
assemblies, to provide the required system func-
tions.
bar
The horizontal part of a panic device which,
when pushed, will operate the mechanism.
Ref.EN 1125, Definitions.
push-bar
The activating horizontal bar of a panic device
cross bar
(type A), designed to be fixed between pivoted
support brackets, that operates in the direction of
exit and/or in an arc downwards.
Ref.EN 1125, Definitions.
touch-bar
The activating horizontal bar of a panic device
push bar
(type B), designed to be part of a chassis or other
mounting assembly, that operates in the direction
of exit.
Ref.EN 1125, Definitions.
push pad
An operating element of an emergency exit
device, which, when pushed, operates the emer-
gency exit device mechanism in order to release
the bolt head(s).
pull pad
An operating element of an emergency exit device
installed on an inwardly opening door which,
with one single hand operation, operates the
emergency exit device mechanism in order to
release the bolt head(s).
lever handle
A rotatable operating element whose axis of rota-
tion is perpendicular to the face of the door and
which operates the emergency device mechanism
in order to release the bolt head(s).
outside access
A mechanism for opening an emergency exit
device
device from the outside.

»»Ò³
40
automatic
A device to enable the automatic securing of a
re-latching
panic device in the closed position, after it has
device
been operated.
bolt head
The portion of a panic device which engages with the
keeper to secure the door in the closed position.
dogging
A mechanism fitted to a panic device for holding
mechanism
the bolt head(s) in the withdrawn position until
manually reset.
keeper
A socket or other fitting with which the bolt
strike;
head(s) engages.
striker plate
outside access
A mechanism for opening a panic device from
device
the outside.
release force
The force applied to the operating element in a
direction perpendicular to the door face, necessary
to withdraw the bolt head(s) from the keeper(s).
vertical rod
The extension of the bolt head of a panic
device which links it to the bar via the operating
mechanism.
deadbolt
A bolt head manually engaged or thrown by a key
or thumb turn, and which is released when the exit
device is operated.
interconnecting
A type of device used on double door sets,
device
whereby the operation of the device on one leaf is
dependent on the device (or element of the device
such as a striker) on the other leaf.
initiating
A manually initiated element of a panic exit
element (IE)
system that provides an electrical signal to enable an
electrical locking element to release the door. An IE
may be incorporated into a mechanically operated
horizontal bar which complies with EN 1125.
electrical locking
An electrically operated element of a panic exit
element (EL)
system that maintains the door in secured condi-
tion. These elements may be electromagnetic,
electromechanical or motorised in their operation,
and may be incorporated in an initiating element.
Technical terminology and definitions. (continued)

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41
EU
European Union
CEN
European Standard Organisation
(Comite Europeen de Normalisation)
EN
European standard (norm)
prEN
Provisional European standard (not yet published)
Standard
A non mandatory technical specification approved by
a recognised standard organisation.
Regulation
A mandatory requirement issued by European or
National authorities
Escape route
A protected route such as a corridor or staircase
leading to a designated safe area, normally outside
the building.
Exit door
A door located on an escape route
Access
To gain entry to a building or area within a building
Egress
To exit from a building or area within a building
Exit
See egress
General terminology
and definitions
electrical
An element of a panic exit system which supplies,
controlling
connects and controls the EL and IE. An EC may
element (EC)
contain power supplies, selection switches, detec-
tion and alarm components and wiring, etc.
active leaf
The first opening and last closing leaf of a rebated
single swing double doorset.
inactive leaf
The last opening and first closing leaf of a rebated
single swing double doorset.
double doorset
An assembly consisting of two hinged or pivoted
leaves within a single frame. The meeting stiles can
be either plain or rebated.
More can be found in the above-mentioned EN standards.

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42
What is the difference between panic and
emergency exit devices and where do I use them?
Panic exit devices to EN 1125 are intended for use on exit doors
where a panic situation may arise. They will give safe and effective
escape through a doorway with minimum effort and without prior
knowledge of the device. Emergency exit devices to EN 179 are
intended for use where people are familiar with the exit door.
They will give safe and effective escape through a doorway with one
single operation to release the device, although this may require prior
knowledge of its operation.
Can I use an emergency exit device on a panic exit?
No. Panic exit devices may be used on emergency exits, but emergency
exit devices must never be used on panic exits. If in doubt, always
specify panic exit devices.
Is it possible to offer an electrically controlled solution?
Yes, panic exit systems (to prEN 13633) and emergency exit systems
(to prEN 13637) allow you to offer electrically controlled solutions
linked to the fire detection and alarm system as well as to the access
control system of a building, without jeopardising the life safety
requirements.
May I use exit devices on fire-resisting doors?
Yes, but you should verify that the device is intended for use on fire-
resisting doors and has been tested accordingly. Evidence may be given
by the marking on the product and the copy of the certificate
of conformity supplied by the manufacturer.
Can I lock an exit door?
No. An exit door must allow safe and immediate exit at any time.
However, access from outside may be denied except when re-entry is
required by local regulations. Nevertheless it is usually permitted (ask
your local fire authorities) to lock an exit door electrically under cer-
tain conditions. The exit system must be linked to the fire detection
and alarm system to allow immediate release of the door in case of
an emergency or panic. A time delay action may also be allowed.
The door may also be locked when the public are absent. This makes
it possible to achieve a higher security level when the building is
unoccupied without jeopardising panic/emergency escape.
Can I use a motorised lock for additional security or convenience?
Yes, but only if the motorised lock is interlocked with an essential
function in such a way that normal activities cannot be held in the
building or room without releasing it. Essential functions include:
• The lights (when daylight is not available)
• The intruder alarm
Frequently Asked Questions

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43
Can I integrate an electrically controlled device
into an access control system?
Yes, but it must be linked to the fire detection and alarm system. Access
controls are usually not in conflict with panic or emergency functions.
You are recommended to use a certified installation company.
Can I use electric strikes? Or solenoid locks?
A solution with electric strikes may not conform to EN 1125 or
EN 179. When using an electric strike, escape must be possible even
when the strike is in a locked position. A solution with solenoid locks
may similarly not conform to EN 1125 or EN 179. When using a
solenoid lock you must ensure that the system is of fail-unlocked type.
The function of the solenoid lock must be that the lever handle
operates (opens) the latch bolt if power fails. Products must always
be tested as a set and must fall into one of the approved categories.
What do ‘fail locked’ and ‘fail unlocked’ mean?
‘Fail unlocked’ (fail safe) means that if the installation is out of power
(for whatever reason) it must be possible to open that door mechanical-
ly. ‘Fail locked’ means the opposite, that the door will remain locked.
I have a double door set, what is it important to consider?
Importance of door control. Door closers, automatics, coordinators etc.
Escape via active door leaf? Escape via both doors in the door set?
Is it possible to return through the exit door, and why?
Under some conditions it is a requirement that return through the
escape door should be possible: for instance if the escape route is via
a staircase or via other rooms. In this case select an approved product
and follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for outside trims,
functions and installation.
Is it possible to connect an exit device to a burglar alarm?
Burglar alarms are usually not in conflict with panic or emergency
functions. You are recommended to use a certified installation company.

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44
See page
Access control
How to use an exit door as
an access controlled door
43
Additional
What is happening when using an
hardware
additional hardware part connected
with an exit device (strike, mortise
lock, electric or mechanic)
32
Alarms
When can an alarm solution be useful
with the exit device
25&29
Check-list
What is the check-list to go through
to help make a decision
36
Device
How to decide between a panic or an
emergency exit device
21
Delayed egress
When is it possible to have a delayed
egress solution
28
Double doors
What is needed in case of a double
door
43
Electrically
What to consider when selecting an
controlled
electrically controlled exit system
24&28
Emergency
What is an emergency situation
11
EN standards
What are the requirements from the
EN standards
54
EU regulations
What are the EU regulations
48
Exit door
What is an exit door
41
Information
What is the information to be requested
before making a choice, (CE marking)
36
Inward doors
What about doors opening inwards
(hotels, hospitals)
13
Local code
How to decide between a local code
and an EU regulation
48
Where to find what in
this document?

»»Ò³
45
Mechanical
What to consider when selecting a
mechanically operated exit device
22&26
Considerations
What should be considered to create
the ideal solution
18
Mis-use
How to avoid the mis-use of an
exit door
42-43
More
Where to find more information
53
Night locking
Is it possible to lock an emergency
and/or a panic exit door over night
42
Panic
What is a panic situation
10
Product
How to be certain to have the right
product
35-37
Re-entry
What is the solution when re-entry
may be needed
33&43
Second
What is needed in case of a second
door leafs
door leaf
43
Security
How to achieve the highest security
on an exit door
31
Technical
Who can answer specific technical
questions
questions or applications
53

»»Ò³

»»Ò³
Formal Regulations

»»Ò³
48
New & important information
Why?
Society is continuously changing. National regula-
tions also change to adapt to these new situations.
The European regulations now lead the way on some
changes in order to harmonise the various national
regulations on subjects of major importance.
Consideration of subjects such as life safety, the
environment, safety in use, etc. has been made more
stringent.
European regulations usually give general guide-
lines about what to do in which situations. They
define the objectives that have to be met. Standards
and technical specifications then define the require-
ments products have to meet and the way testing
and assessment of conformity is performed.
European regulations and Standards will
gradually replace existing national regulations and
Standards, or, more exactly, they will lead to har-
monised regulations and Standards in all EU mem-
ber countries on those important subjects. It is there-
fore important that you keep information updated
and always check with the source.
Please note:
Make sure to be updated with
the latest European Standards
and National Regulations!

»»Ò³
49
Functionality
EU + State
Fire authorities
Architects etc.
CEN
Manufacturers
Insurance
companies
Advice
Specifications
Technical solutions
Product
performance
Fire & Life
Safety rules
Safety &
security
requirements
Building
regulations
ASSA ABLOY
Advice
document
Product
information
Product
standards
Design specification
The sources of information

»»Ò³
50
European Construction
Product Directive
Objectives of the European Commission.
The objectives of the European Commission have
been:
•to harmonise national legislation with respect to
the health and safety requirements applicable to
construction products.
•to coordinate regulatory and legislative activity in
the EU, particularly that relating to the internal
market for products.
•to promote the ability of the industry to generate
rising standards of living for the population, whilst
opening markets to international competition.
•to regulate building construction, both at the level
of individual products and construction works,
because of its impact on health, safety and the
environment.
•to consolidate and simplify legislation related to
the Single Market and public procurement in order
to allow for competitiveness, and to remove
existing barriers to trade.
The New Approach Directives.
Before, the ambition was to give technical solutions.
Now, the New Approach Directives simply outline
functionality. This allows producers to go on devel-
oping technical specifications so that their products
can keep a cutting edge. It also avoids the directives
becoming obsolete.
The new approach to technical harmonisation
was agreed in 1985.
It ensured that products used in constructional
works met specific essential health and safety
requirements. And it introduced a clear separation of
responsibilities between the European Community

»»Ò³
51
legislators and the European Standards bodies CEN
and CENELEC.
Through the Directives, the EC legislators define
the ‘essential requirements’ of health and safety that
products must meet when they are placed on the
market. They determine the required levels of prod-
uct testing and factory production control for each
particular product.
It is then the job of CEN and CENELEC to develop
corresponding specifications to meet these essential
requirements.
Compliance with the CEN Standards means that
the product meets the health and safety require-
ments of the Directives.
When agreed with the Commission, the
Standards are called Harmonised Standards, and
products shown to comply with them are entitled to
carry the CE marking to that effect.
Introduction of European Standards.
These Harmonised Standards will be implemented
in all member countries of the EU, and any existing
national Standards that conflict with them will then
be withdrawn or amended to remove the conflict.
The long-term effect will be:
• to facilitate the free flow of products across
national boundaries
• to improve the design and construction of build-
ings throughout Europe, thereby raising the
standard of living of the whole community.
See Directive 89/106/EEC.
Including Directive 93/68/EEC: 01.01.1995
and the supplementary Directive 93/68/EEC.

»»Ò³
52
National Building Regulations
All EU member states must update their building
regulations in accordance with the Construction
Product Directive (CPD). New regulations appear
progressively, so make sure that you always check
for recent developments.
Avoiding discrimination against the disabled.
Most European countries have published additional
regulations or technical requirements covering dis-
crimination against the disabled or people with
impaired mobility.
Typically, exit hardware offers good solutions for
allowing the young, the elderly and the handicapped
to use public buildings.
Fire & Life safety
Always check with your local Fire and Life safety code.
Each country has its own Fire and Life safety
requirements. Although considerations by Fire
authorities are similar in all European countries and
each national code has basically similar require-
ments, many differ in detail.
Insurance requirements
Insurance companies
.
Insurance companies have their own safety and
security requirements which are usually in addition
to local Life Safety codes.
Always check your particular Insurance require-
ments.

»»Ò³
53
Where to find what?
BSI (British Standards Institution)
BSI Customer services
389 Chiswick High Road
London, W4 4AL
Tel: +44 (0) 208 996 9000
Fax: +44 (0) 208 996 7400
www.bsi.org.uk
FireNet
Electronic pages for the British Fire Service
www.fire.org.uk
The Loss Prevention Council
Melrose Avenue, Borehamwood,
Herfordshire WD6 2BJ
Tel: +44 (0) 208 207 2345
Fax: +44 (0) 208 207 6305
www.lpc.co.uk
Department of the
Environment, Transport and the Regions
Building Regulations Division
DETR, 3rd Floor, Eland House
Bressenden Place
London, SW1E 5DU.
Tel: +44 (0) 220 7944 + extension
Fax: +44 (0) 220 7944-5739 or 5719
www.construction.detr.gov.uk
Contacts:
+ 5744Building Regulations - access and
facilities for the disabled (Part M)
+ 5730Building Rehulations - fire safety (Part B)
+ 5727Construction Products - CE Marking,
European Standards
ASSA ABLOY AB (publ.)
Klarabergsviadukten 90
P.O. Box 70340
SE-107 23 Stockholm. Sweden
Tel: +46 (0)8 506 485 00
Fax: +46 (0)8 506 485 85
www.assaabloy.se
For further information and advice, please contact your
local ASSAABLOYGroup Company.

»»Ò³
54
Extracts from EN standards
EN standard
EN 1125
EN 179
Title
Building hardware – Building hardware –
Panic exit devices
Emergency exit devices
operated by a
operated by a lever
horizontal bar –
handle or push pad -
Requirements and
Requirements and
test methods
test methods
Opening forces
Loaded door test
No loaded door test.
(220 daN) to
simulate panic situation
(door under pressure)
Operating element
Horizontal bar
Lever handle
(push-bar or
or push-pad
touch-bar)
60% minimum
of door width
Category
High frequency of
High frequency of
of use
use by public
use by public
Durability
100,000 or 200,000
100,000 or 200,000
test cycles
test cycles
Fire resistance
Suitable or not
Suitable or not
to fire resisting
to fire resisting
doors
doors
Safety
Life safety products
Life safety products
grade 1
grade 1

»»Ò³
55
Corrosion
High resistance.
High resistance.
resistance
(96 hours neutral
(96 hours neutral
salt spray).
salt spray).
Security
1000 N abuse
1000 N to 3000 N
test load.
abuse test load.
Operating
Standard projection
Standard projection
element
(150 mm)
(150 mm)
or low projection
or low projection
(100 mm max)
(100 mm max)
60% door width
Marking
EN Number and
classification on
the product
Attestation of
Level 1
Level 1
conformity
third party testing
third party testing
system
Factory
Initial type testing
Initial type testing
production
Periodic audit testingPeriodic audit testing
control and
Yearly audit testing
Yearly audit testing
audit testing
CE marking
Will be applicable
Will be applicable
when standard
when standard
is harmonised
is harmonised
EN standard
EN 1125
EN 179

»»Ò³
56
Product information
Manufacturers’ solutions.
Manufacturers will provide you with a number
of technical solutions to suit different needs. It is
important to select the product designed for the
right application and which meets the local
regulations or other technical (including fire, life
and insurance company) requirements.
Claims of compliance.
When choosing the correct product from a manufac-
turer’s catalogue, it is always necessary to question
claims of compliance with the Standards, of quality
and of marking of the product.
Since the Standards are complex and far-reaching,
there may still be misunderstandings and misinter-
pretations. Do not take anything for granted. Check
for yourself, so that you are convinced about any
product’s compliance with the Standards.

»»Ò³
57
Product standards/CEN
Reference to CEN standards
CEN is the European Standards Organisation
(Comite Europeen de Normalisation), which is
mandated by the EU to write the technical require-
ments for exit hardware products intended for use
on escape routes.
The above information refers to the following
Standards which are currently available (EN
Standards) or will be available (prEN draft
Standards) from each national Standards
organisation:
Ref.
Title
EN 1125
Building hardware - Panic exit devices
operated by a horizontal bar - Requirements
and test methods
EN 179
Building hardware - Emergency exit devices
operated by a lever handle or push pad -
Requirements and test methods
prEN 13633
Building hardware - Electrically controlled
panic exit systems - Requirements and test
methods
prEN 13637
Building hardware - Electrically controlled
emergency exit systems - Requirements and
test methods
Note: European standards are published in each country under
a national reference but the contents remain the same.

»»Ò³
58
Main testing requirements
Opening test with
minimum effort.
Focus on the ease
of opening by the
young, elderly
and disabled.
Opening test
with loaded door
for panic exit devices.
Opening force
required in a
panic situation.
Abuse resistance test.
Durability of the
device’s
functionality when
mistreated.
The requirements of the European Standards have
been developed and based on extensive practical
tests. Some of these tests are:

»»Ò³
59
High-usage-cycle test.
Focus on the sustained
‘escape’ capability of
the device throughout
its expected life.
Factory production
control, third-party
attestation of conformity.
To make sure that the
performance of the
manufactured products
is consistent and com-
plies with the original
test requirements.
Marking requirements.
To give evidence of con-
formity of the product
and to differentiate
applications (panic or
emergency).

»»Ò³
60
The ASSA ABLOY Group is the world’s leading
manufacturer and supplier of locks and associated
products. All these are designed to meet end-user’s
needs for security, safety and convenience.
The Group is active in the development, the pro-
duction and the marketing of mechanical locks,
industrial locks, electromechanical and electronic
locks as well as hotel locks, fittings and other acces-
sories. Exit devices form an important element in
this broad product mix.
The Group has its origins in the Nordic countries
and holds market-leading positions there. The Group
also has strong positions in continental Europe,
North America, Australia and South East Asia.
Within the electromechanical area, ASSA ABLOY
holds a world leading position in hotel security.
Although ASSA ABLOY is the world leader in the
lock business, close liaison with local customers in
each country and experience of local requirements,
business arrangements and distribution patterns
are recognised as prerequisites for success.
ASSA ABLOY in brief

»»Ò³
61
This document was produced by ASSA ABLOY. Copyright is
owned by ASSA ABLOY AB.
No modifications or reproductions of any kind are permitted
without the written authorisation of the ASSA ABLOY Exit
Devices Group (who will provide extra copies free of charge,
upon request).
We have drawn information from many sources, including estab-
lished national and international regulations, the new European
Standards and our own practical experience in many countries
where the use of panic and emergency exit hardware is well
established. Our knowledge has been gained over many years of
creating specifications for a great variety of critical applications
in numerous different environments.
ASSA ABLOY will accept no liability of any kind regarding the
use of this handbook, which is intended to provide general guid-
ance only as a practical help in finding a good solution. The final
choice remaines the responsibility of the decision-maker.
Specific
advice is available from your local ASSA ABLOYcompany.
European edition.
The contents of this handbook relate to the new European
regulations, but can be used elsewhere providing it is borne in
mind that all references are European and that local regulations
must be taken into consideration. Not to be used in the US.
References
Las & utrymningsvagar (Svenska Brandforsvarsforeningen) 1997
EN 1125: Building hardware - Panic exit devices operated by a
horizontal bar - Requirements and test methods (CEN)
EN 179: Building hardware - Emergency exit devices operated by a
lever handle or push pad - Requirements and test methods (CEN)
© ASSA ABLOY AB 2000
About this document

»»Ò³
62
Notes

»»Ò³
63

»»Ò³
64
Notes

»»Ò³
65

»»Ò³
ASSAABLOYAB(publ.)
Postal adress:
P.O. Box 70340, SE-107 23 Stockholm. Sweden
Visiting adress:
Klarabergsviadukten 90
Phone:
+46 (0)8 506 485 00 •
Fax:
+46 (0)8 506 485 85.
Registered No.:
SE.556059-3575 •
Registered Office:
Sweden, SE-107 23 Stockholm
The ASSAABLOY Group is the world’s leading manufacturer and
supplier of locks and associated products, dedicated to satisfying
end-user needs for security, safety and convenience.

»»Ò³